ORDERS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT
Orders of Paragraph Development… Development in this context means to explain more clearly or fully, to enlarge on, to elaborate on and to bring out the possibilities of a topic or to make it better know. A weak or poorly developed discussion is usually vague, too general and or not illustrated. However, developing a discussion is not simply a matter of making it longer. It is possible to make a discussion longer by laboring it – that is, by overworking it with seemingly endless development. Development has to do with making the discussion more meaningful, not simply making it drag on and on. A good writer writes from experience or acquires the experience that is necessary for good writing. To effectively develop the paragraph, the writer should know his subject and explain it. He should avoid wordiness and unnecessary repetitions. He should learn to stop when he has made his point. These imply that development of the paragraph is not done in a haphazard manner. It has orders and patterns for the writer to follow. Also see Paragraph in Writing
ORDERS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT
Movement and transition of paragraph relate closely to the order of sequencing or arrangement of details. Some common kinds of orders are time order, space order, deductive order, inductive order and climax.
TIME ORDER: Time order or chronological sequencing is the arrangement of events according to when they happened, ft can be used to explain a particular operation or to narrate an experience. Time order is therefore a major feature of narrative writings. It is used to develop themes of instruction, process, as well as letters and reports in which the time that events or steps occurred is of major Importance. Time order words and phrases include first (second, etc.), then next, finally, afterward, meanwhile, before, on, until, after that, in the morning (afternoon, midnight) etc.
EXAMPLE OF TIME ORDER
Take the following action in treating a serious bum. Remove any loose clothing on or near the bum. Cover the Injury with a clean dry dressing. Being careful not to touch the dressing, wash the area around the bum. Then, with tape or bandage, secure the dressing in place tightly enough to keep out air. If fingers or toes or other adjoining skin areas are burned, separate them with gauze or cloth to prevent their sticking together, unless recommended by a doctor do not apply medication. (Picket and taster, 1970: 513).
SPACE ORDER: This is also called spatial sequencing, and it is used to discuss the Items according to where they are. In describing the physical outlay of the university, the luxuriate features of a house, or the body parts of the grasshopper, the writer can arrange his items in terms of their relationship to one another in order of space. Spatial order expressions include: on the. In the, in front of, next to, around, the outside (of), between, behind. In the back of, adjacent, etc.
Example of Space Order
Entering the front door of the machine shop at West Area Technical School, an industrialist would see a well-organised shop. To his left he would see a group of lathes, turret lathes and engine lathes. In the left back comer he would see a tool from which students check out materials and tools. Just to the right of the tool room is a cutting saw. In the center of the shop he would see a line of grinding machines. Included are surface grinders, tool-cutter grinders, cylindrical grinders; and centeriess grinders. Nearer the back wall is the heat-treating section where the industrialist would see furnaces used in heat treatment. To his right he would see two other types of machines: the milling machines and the drill presses. Milling machines are of the vertical and the horizontal types; drill presses included are the multispindle and the radial drill
DEDUCTIVE ORDER: The deductive order of writing developes the discussion from the general to the particular or specific order. The topic sentence – the most general statement within the paragraph -appears near the beginning. This is followed by the specific material of the paragraph which includes details giving additional information, examples comparisons, contrasts, reasons, etc. This is the order most often used by students as it helps them stick to the main idea.
INDUCTIVE ORDER: The inductive order of development refers to the expansion of discussion from the particular to general order. The specific material – reasons, examples, comparisons, details, etc. – precedes and leads up to the topic (general) sentence.
CLIMAX: In the order of climax, Ideas are arranged In such a way that each succeeding idea is more important than the preceding. The most important Idea comes as the last statement of the paragraph.
There are other orders of paragraph development which range from alphabetical and random – listing, simple to complex, known to unknown and a host of other orders used in expository writing.
Example of Climax
People often drink water without knowing for sure that it is safe to drink. They drink water from driven wells into which potentially impure surface water has drained. They drink water from springs without checking around the outlet of the spring to be sure that no surface pollution from man or animal wastes has occured. Without knowing the rate of flow, the degree of pollution, or the temperature, they drink running water, thinking it safe because of a popular notion that running water purifies itself. These are dangerous acts, polluted water can kill!