Components of oral Communication
Components of oral Communication… Speech is an activity which takes place simultaneously with thinking going on in the mind of the speaker. There are different types of speech situations. These include conversations between family, members and friends; lectures delivering their lectures to students; a pastor preaching the gospel to his congregation; a member of parliament contributing to a debate in the house, and other speech situations. Read Also Language Skills
Some speech situations are formal, such as a principal addressing the school “assembly or the president of a country making a state- of -the-nation broadcast. Some other speech situations are informal, such as the myriad of conversations that take place on a daily basis.
Certain components are usually present in any oral communication. Some of these are discussed below.
There is a speaker who is also called the producer or sender or encoder or presenter of the communication text.
The listener or listeners to a speaker constitute his audience. The audience is also called the consumer or the receiver, or the decoder. The speaker is influenced considerably by the relationship existing between him and his audience. He may be speaking to a friend, a superior officer or junior officer, an educated group or a group , of literate people If he is speaking to a superior officer his tone will normally reflect some degree of respect whereas he may sound patronizing when speaking to those junior to him.
The message is the communication text which the sender conveys to the receiver
Time is of the essence in speech. The speaker has very limited time to get across his message. That is why spoken language makes copious use of shortened forms of words and sentences.
The context of a speech refers to the speech situation; a lecture, a condolence visit, a party, a school debate, an interview, and so on.
A feedback is the reaction of the listener to the speaker. Usually, the speaker observes his audience as he speaks for their reactions. These reaction can come in the form of speech or non-verbal signs such as smiles, frowning, nodding, sleeping, and so on. A good speaker usually makes adjustments in his speech according to the feedback he receives from his audience.
Principles of Good Speech Delivery
In whatever speech situation we are engaged, these principles will be useful.
- Good knowledge of subject matter: Effective speech depends largely on the speaker’s knowledge of the subject matter. This gives him confidence. He should also practice the style of delivery of his subject matter. The style of delivery of a preacher, for example, will be different from that of a lawyer.
- Sticking to the topic: the speaker should concentrate on the topic hi is speaking and avoid digressing. He should also say things that are true and not exaggerated.
- Simplicity: It is important that the speaker should be as simple as possible so as to Convey his message without difficulty.
- Moderate pace of delivery: The context and audience usually determine the pace of delivery. Generally, however, a moderate pace of delivery is recommended.
- Good knowledge of the Sound system: A good speaker strives hard to master the sound system of the language he is speaking. For example, good mastery of vowel and consonant sounds as well as stress and intonation in English will do the speaker much good.
- Mastery of Grammatical Rules: The mastery of rules in grammar in such areas as concord, tenses, and pluralization is quite important for the speaker.
- Use of Non-verbal Aspects of Speech: A good speaker should realize that the whole body, not only the mouth, should be involved when speaking. He should use gestures, eye-contact , and sometimes real objects to convey his message.
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